When used alone, erythropoietin is often used to treat hypokalemia, a condition characterized by low hemoglobin, anemia, and increased uric acid concentration. It is important, however, that patients receiving intravenous erythropoietin be closely monitored for symptoms of hypokalemia or anemia. Generic aygestin(norethindrone acetate) also develop severe renal and/or hepatic toxicity from the erythropoietin, including acute-phase reactants and toxic effects of erythropoietin. The use of erythropoietin as an anti-hypertensive drug is controversial.
It is often recommended as an adjunct to conventional anti-hypertensive drugs, but some of these agents have also been shown to reduce blood pressure by an additional two to three points, resulting in significant improvement in the clinical condition. The efficacy of erythropoietin, however, is dependent upon the duration of administration and is more generic aygestin(norethindrone acetate) in patients with chronic renal failure. In the elderly, erythropoietin may be ineffective. The use of erythropoietin in patients with hypercoagulability can lead to hyperphosphatemia, particularly with erythrocyte-rich blood, causing an increase in the level of sodium in the blood.
Hyperphosphatemia can lead to significant hypernatremia and is associated with more complications than with erythropoietin alone, particularly in elderly patients. As a result, patients can have complications such as renal and hepatic dysfunction, which result in death. The effectiveness of erythropoietin is also dependent upon erythropoietin plasma levels. In addition, the use of intravenous erythropoietin may increase serum cholesterol.
Pregnancy/Lactation The effect of erythropoietin on pregnancy/ lactation was first determined using rats during the late 1940s. This was the first report of the effects of erythropoietin on the maternal immune system. In a study of 10 aygestin norethindrone acetate infusions of 3 mg/kg erythropoietin per kilogram of body weight, maternal serum IgG antibodies were markedly reduced at two months, but were restored to normal level at one year. In another aygestin norethindrone acetate rats, the effect of erythropoietin on rat offspring was studied in pregnancy. Rats were given erythropoietin orally at a dose of 3 mg/kg per day in drinking water until the end of gestation. Pups were exposed to a single dose of erythropoietin, as a bolus, at two months of embryonic development. Blood was collected every other day for analysis. The mother rats showed a marked decrease in serum IgG antibodies, and at one year of age, this had returned to its pre-pregnancy level.
Pups born to rats given erythropoietin during pregnancy showed no effect of the drug on serum antibodies. In addition, in some patients whose blood sugar is high, red blood cell counts can sometimes be achieved without transfusions of glucose from the blood of a person with type II diabetes. The use of erythropoietin in the treatment of renal failure is limited by a need to use a continuous infusion of the drug. A number of methods of delivering erythropoietin have been proposed, including intravenous infusion. One such method is the intramuscular infusion of erythropoietin, but it is not known whether the drug can be given intrathecally as well.