A more permanent impairment may ensue if the injury is not promptly addressed. Halleck, who discovered that the blood supply is lost to the brain through the formation of a capillary in the cerebral cortex. Dr. Halleck found that the amount of oxygen in the cerebral cortex was reduced in the presence of tPA, a drug that increases the supply of oxygen to the cortex and can protect the cortex from severe injury. The results were so devastating that it was determined that the presence of tPA in the brain may be a factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Some therapies have begun to address the effect of tPA on the blood supply directly, by inhibiting the ability of the brain cells to regenerate lost tissue.

One such therapy being evaluated for the treatment of tPA-induced damage is the drug Gefitinib. Gefitinib is produced by a pharmaceutical company, GlaxoSmithKline, in collaboration with researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Gefitinib is approved for use in adults in the United States and Europe. A clinical study has been carried out to test the safety of use of Gefitinib in Parkinson's disease. A large group of patients with the disease was recruited to a two-year, double-blind trial with Gefitinib for use during the first six months of therapy. During the first year of treatment there was an average reduction of approximately 3% in the number of neurons per unit weight of gray matter in the motor cortex in the group that was receiving Gefitinib. Gefitinib was well tolerated and there were no significant adverse events.

A follow-up study was carried on the same group and found no significant change in gray matter volume in the first two years of treatment. This is an excellent example of how tPA can be effectively administered without causing substantial harm to the patient. This drug, a derivative of vitamin A which is manufactured from the compound retinol, is the active ingredient of Retin-A, a drug used in the treatment of acne. Although rizatriptan maxalt is well-established that retinol has anti-aging effects and is a good form of therapy for acne, it has little effect on tPA-induced damage to the brain. A clinical study has been conducted with the drug to determine if the ability of the drug to decrease brain tPA levels can be used as an effective measure for preventing disease.

The drug was administered orally to patients with atopic skin, a type of hyperpigmentation, and to control tPA levels in the brain and to measure their effects on tPA, as they were being exposed to excessive amounts of tPA by exposure to a fluorescent light. In the latter case, the resulting damage can be very severe. In the case of tPA, the brain is severely damaged and is unable to recover, rizatriptan maxalt unable to perform all necessary functions. The brain will eventually recover, but it will not be complete. TPA does not provide this kind of reconstruction. One of the advantages of using tPA for stroke is that if a treatment is applied after an individual has been released from hospital, he or she will not be left in an environment in which an adverse effect can develop within hours of exposure to this treatment.

This should not be surprising, as the brain does not undergo extensive repair until a period of several months to a year. TPA does not, therefore, provide a long-term solution for patients recovering from stroke. While this may seem obvious, it is important to remember that it will take about one year from the time that tPA therapy is initiated to when the patient is fully recovered. A second reason to use tPA as a therapy for stroke is that patients are treated by a neurologist who has a strong understanding of the brain. Although the clinical trials that are under way to explore tPA in stroke are not yet complete, I am confident that the results of the trials to date suggest that tPA provides significant improvements in the quality of life for many patients with stroke. In addition, I am confident from the results of research that has been undertaken to date that tPA may have a very significant impact on the number of strokes that are treated with other treatments. I am very interested in seeing if the results of the trials that are currently under way in Germany will allow us to establish whether tPA has a significant impact on the number of strokes that are treated with other therapies. TPA is an excellent treatment for patients who have been injured, for whom an immediate surgical solution is not feasible, and for whom the treatment is not available.


Maxalt is used to treat migraine which has already started.